Rocket Nozzles
Nozzle Shapes
Radial Out-Flow
Radial In-Flow
Altitude Compensation
Performance Losses
Advantages & Disadvantages
  1. The Aerospike Engine Frequently Asked Questions List,
  2. Angelino, Gianfranco. Approximate Method for Plug Nozzle Design, AIAA Journal, vol. 2, no. 10, October 1964, pp. 1834-1835.
  3. Anselmo, Joseph C. NASA Nears X-33 Pick, Aviation Week & Space Technology, June 17, 1996, pp. 29-30.
  4. Asker, James R. NASA, Industry Hit Snags on X-33, Aviation Week & Space Technology, June 30, 1997, pp. 27-28.
  5. Berman, K. and Crimp, F.W., Jr. Performance of Plug-Type Rocket Exhaust Nozzles, ARS Journal, January 1961, pp. 18-23.
  6. Carroll, B. F. and Dutton, J. C. Transonic Flow in the Throat Region of Radial or Nearly Radial Supersonic Nozzles, AIAA Journal, vol. 23, no. 7, July 1985, pp. 1127-1129.
  7. Conley, R. R., Hoffman, J. D., and Thompson, H. D. An Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Annular Propulsive Nozzles, AIAA Paper 84-0282, 1984.
  8. Dornheim. Michael A. SR-71 to Test Aerospike Rocket for X-33 Proposal, Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 11, 1996, pp. 69.
  9. Dornheim, Michael A. Follow-on Plan Key to X-33 Win, Aviation Week & Space Technology, July 8, 1996, pp. 20-22.
  10. Dutton, J. C. and Addy, A. L. Transonic Flow in the Throat Region of Annular Supersonic Nozzles, AIAA Journal, vol. 20, no. 9, September 1982, pp. 1236-1243.
  11. Fick, M and Schmucker, R. H. Linear Aerospike Performance Evaluation, AIAA Paper 97-3305, 1997.
  12. Flinn, Edward D. Aerospike Engine Powers RLV Savings, Aerospace America, vol. 34, no. 11, November 1996, pp. 18-19.
  13. Freeman, Delma C. Jr., Talay, Theodore A., and Austin, Robert Eugene Single-Stage-to-Orbit--Meeting the Challenge, Acta Astronautica, vol. 38, no. 4-8, 1996, pp. 323-331.
  14. Hall, Charles R. and Mueller, Thomas J. Exploratory Analysis of Nonuniform Plug Nozzle Flowfields, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 9, no. 5, May 1972, pp. 337-342.
  15. Hill, Philip G. and Peterson, Carl R. Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1992, pp. 538-540.
  16. Hopkins, D. F. and Hill, D. E. Transonic Flow in Unconventional Nozzles, AIAA Journal, vol. 6, no. 5, May 1968, pp. 838-842.
  17. Humphreys, Robert P., Thompson, H. Doyle, and Hoffmann, Joe D. Design of Maximum Thrust Plug Nozzles for Fixed Inlet Geometry, AIAA Journal, vol. 9, no. 8, August 1971, pp. 1581-1587.
  18. Huzel, Dieter K. and Huang, David H. Design of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Washington DC: NASA Science and Technical Information Office, 1967, pp. 89-95.
  19. Korte, J. J., Salas, A. O., Dunn, H. J., Alexandrov, N. M., Follett, W. W., Orient, G. E., and Hadid, A. H. Multidisciplinary Approach to Aerospike Nozzle Design, NASA TM-110326, February 1997.
  20. Kumakawa, A., Onodera, T., Yoshida, M., Atsumi, M., and Igarashi, I. A Study of Aerospike-Nozzle Engines, AIAA Paper 98-3526, 1998.
  21. Migdal, David. Supersonic Annular Nozzles, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 9, no. 1, January 1972, pp. 3-6.
  22. Mueller, Thomas J. and Hall, Charles R. Jr. Separated Flow Region within a Planar Expansion-Deflection Nozzle, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 5, no. 6, June 1968, pp. 738-740.
  23. Mueller, Thomas J. and Sule, Wayne P. Condensation and Probe Interference Effects on Planar Expansion-Deflection Nozzle Experiments, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 6, no. 7, July 1969, pp. 857-859.
  24. Mueller, Thomas J., Hall, Charles R. Jr. and Roache, Patrick J. Influence of Initial Flow Direction on the Turbulent Base Pressure in Supersonic Axisymmetric Flow, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 7, no. 12, December 1970, pp. 1484-1488.
  25. Oates, Gordon C. Aerothermodynamics of Gas Turbine and Rocket Propulsion. Washington DC: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1988, pp. 63-65.
  26. Onodera, T., Tomita, T., and Tamura, H. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Field Around Linear Aerospike Nozzles, AIAA Paper 99-2588, 1999.
  27. Reijasse, Philippe and Corbel, Bernard. Basic Experiments on Non-Adaptation Phenomena in Aerospike Nozzles, AIAA Paper 97-2303, 1997.
  28. Research on Plug Nozzles at the DLR, Germany
    (no longer available)
  29. Ruf, J. H. and McConnaughey, P. K. A Numerical Analysis of a Three Dimensional Aerospike, AIAA Paper 97-3217, 1997.
  30. Ruf, J. H. and McConnaughey, P. K. The Plume Physics Behind Aerospike Nozzle Altitude Compensation and Slipstream Effect, AIAA Paper 97-3218, 1997.
  31. Su, M. W. and Wu, J. M. Base Pressure Correlaion in Supersonic Flow, AIAA Journal, vol. 9, no. 7, July 1971, pp. 1429-1431.
  32. Sutton, George P. Rocket Propulsion Elements: An Introduction to the Engineering of Rockets, 6th ed. NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1992, pp. 68-72.
  33. Tomita, Takeo, Takahashi, Mamoru, and Tamura, Hiroshi. Flow Field of Clustered Plug Nozzles, AIAA Paper 97-3219, 1997.
  34. Tomita, Takeo, Takahashi, Mamoru, Onodera, Takuo, and Tamura, Hiroshi. Visualization of Shock Wave Interaction on the Surface of Aerospike Nozzles, AIAA Paper 98-3523, 1998.
  35. Tomita, Takeo, Takahashi, Mamoru, and Onodera, Takuo. Effects of Base Bleed on Thrust Performance of a Linear Aerospike Engine, AIAA Paper 99-2586, 1999.
  36. VentureStar Tech Center
    (no longer available)
  37. Wang, B. N. and Hoffman, J. D. Calculation of Annular Nozzle Trisonic Flowfields by the Method of Characteristics, Journal of Power and Propulsion, vol. 4, no. 3, May-June 1988, pp. 228-235.
  38. Weegar, Richard. Understanding External Expansion Nozzles, Launchspace Magazine, vol. 1, no. 3, August 10, 1996.
  39. Yu, Liu, Zhengke, Zhang, Wuye, Dai, Jingsheng, Zhang, Shouen, Zhu, Xianchen, Cheng, and Zhengpeng, Zhang. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Aerospike Nozzles, AIAA Paper 99-2340, 1999.

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