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Tu-114 Tupolev
Tu-114 Rossiya
ASCC codename: Cleat
Long-Range Jetliner

Just as Tupolev had successfully adapted the Tu-16 bomber into the Tupolev Tu-104 medium-range airliner, the design bureau was instructed to develop an airliner with intercontinental range based on the Tu-95. The resulting Tu-114, like its military cousin, came as a great surprise to western observers shocked that a propeller-driven aircraft could operate at jet-like speeds.

The key to the success of the Tu-95/Tu-114 family was the development of the enormous and powerful NK-12 turboprop designed by the Kuznetsov Design Bureau, although most of the work was done by a team of captured German scientists. Still the most powerful turboprop engine ever built, the NK-12 converted its shaft power into thrust through gigantic four-bladed counter-rotating propellers mounted in pairs on each engine.

While the Tu-114 was still being designed, the bureau decided to quickly convert three demilitarized Tu-95 airframes into the Tu-116. The purpose of the Tu-116 aircraft was to conduct route and scheduling studies, propulsion system tests, and study compatibility issues with civil airports. Common to the Tu-95, Tu-116, and Tu-114 were the four engines, enormous swept wing, and long landing gear units necessitated by the large-diameter propellers. While the Tu-116 prototypes utilized essentially the same fuselage as the Tu-95, the Tu-114 incorporated a completely new fuselage of increased diameter. This widened fuselage permitted greater internal volume for passengers. In addition, the wing was mounted lower on the fuselage to improve the cabin floor layout. The flight crew was seated in a forward fuselage reminsicent of that on the Tu-95 bomber, including a glazed window encasing the navigator's position in the nose.

The main cabin was huge by 1950's standards with accomodation for 120 to 220 passengers. The cabin was divided into several different sections. First of these was a forward cabin seating 42 passengers, followed by a section of large coat closets. Next came a dining compartment with tables and seating for 48 and a galley compartment with elevators to bring food up from the kitchen on the lower deck. Further aft was a small compartment seating two of the five cabin crew and two small compartments providing additional seating or sleeping berths. Finally came the main cabin with accomodation for 54 passengers seated three abreast plus a compartment of washrooms and additional coat closets.

After setting a number of records, including a speed record for fastest turboprop-powered aircraft that still stands today, the first of 31 examples of the Tu-114 entered service with Aeroflot. The enorous plane was used on long-range domestic and international routes. Among the cities served by the Tu-114 were Delhi, Havana, Montreal, Paris, and Copenhagen. Additional flights were made to Tokyo operated jointly with Japan Air Lines and flown by mixed Soviet-Japanese crews.

The Tu-114 began to be replaced by the Il-62 in 1971 and was withdrawn from civil service in 1975. Several were given a new lease on life after being converted into Tu-126 airborne early warning platforms.

Last modified 17 March 2011

First Flight (Tu-116) late 1956
(Tu-114) 3 October 1957
Service Entry

24 April 1961

CREW: five flight crew: pilot, co-pilot, navigator, radio operator, flight engineer
five cabin crew: three flight attendants, two cooks

PASSENGERS: 120 long-range nonstop flights
170 normal operations
220 high-density



Wing Root TsAGI SR-5S
Wing Tip


Length 177.33 ft (54.10 m)
Wingspan 167.50 ft (51.10 m)
Height 50.67 ft (15.50 m)
Wing Area 3,348.76 ft (311.10 m)
Canard Area

not applicable

Empty 200,620 lb (91,000 kg)
Normal Takeoff unknown
Max Takeoff 376,990 lb (171,000 kg)
Fuel Capacity internal: 18,920 gal (71,615 L)
external: not applicable
Max Payload

66,140 lb (30,000 kg)

Powerplant four Kuznetsov NK-12MV turborpops each driving two AV-60H counter-rotating four-balded reverse-pitch propellers
Thrust 59,180 eshp (44,132 ekW)

Max Level Speed at altitude: 540 mph (870 km/h) at 26,250 ft (8,000 m), Mach 0.78
at sea level: unknown
cruise speed: 480 mph (770 km/h) at 29,500 ft (9,000 m), Mach 0.70
Initial Climb Rate unknown
Service Ceiling 39,370 ft (12,000 m)
Range 4,830 nm (8,950 km) with 33,070 lb (15,000 kg) payload
3,345 nm (6,200 km) with 66,140 lb (30,000 kg) payload
Endurance unknown
g-Limits unknown

Tu-116 Demilitarized Tu-95 bomber used as a prototype with the weapons bay and tail turret deleted and a 24 or 30 seat four-abreast pressurized passenger cabin added to the aft fuselage; 1 modified and 2 built
Tu-114 Production long-range jetliner; 31 built
Tu-114D Aeroflot designation applied to the three Tu-116 aircraft
Tu-126 Designation applied to former Tu-114 airframes withdrawn from service and converted into airborne early warning and control (AWACS) platforms for the Soviet Navy

Japan Air Lines



  • Donald, David, ed. The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. NY: Barnes & Noble, 1997, p. 885, Tupolev Tu-114.
  • Donald, David, ed. The Encyclopedia of Civil Aircraft. San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press, 1999, p. 733-740, 802, Tupolev Tu-114 'Rossiya'.

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