Prior to the introduction of the ASCC system, the US Air Force had begun identifying newly appearing Soviet aircraft and missiles by a type number in 1947. The type numbers that were assigned during the use of this system are listed below.
Type 1 Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-9 (OKB I-300) Type 2 Yakovlev Yak-15 Type 3 Lavochkin La-150 Type 4 Lavochkin La-152 Type 5 Lavochkin La-156 Type 6 Lavochkin La-160 Type 7 Yakovlev Yak-19 Type 8 Sukhoi Su-9 (OKB Type K) Type 9 Tupolev Tu-12 (OKB Tu-17) Type 10 Ilyushin Il-22 Type 11 Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG I-270 Type 12 Tupolev Tu-73 Type 13 not used Type 14 Mikoyan Gurevish MiG-15 (OKB I-310) Type 15 Lavochkin La-168 Type 16 Yakovlev Yak-17 Type 17 Sukhoi Su-11 (OKB Type LK) Type 18 Sukhoi Su-15 (OKB Type P) Type 19 Mikoyan-Gurevich KS-1 Sopka missile Type 20 Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 (OKB Type SI, I-330) Type 21 Lavochkin La-15 (OKB La-174D) Type 22 Tupolev Project 64 Type 23 Sukhoi Su-12 Type 24 Yakovlev Yak-14 Type 25 Tsybin Ts-25 Type 26 Yakovlev Yak-17UTI Type 27 Ilyushin Il-28 Type 28 Yakovlev Yak-23 Type 29 Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15UTI (OKB Type ST) Type 30 Ilyushin Il-28U Type 31 Tupolev Tu-85 Type 32 Mil Mi-1 Type 33 Beriev Be-8 Type 34 Beriev Be-6 Type 35 Tupolev Tu-14 (OKB Tu-81) Type 36 Mil Mi-4 Type 37 Myasishchev M-4, M-6, 3M Type 38 Yakovlev Yak-24 Type 39 Tupolev Tu-16 (OKB Type N, Tu-88) Type 40 Tupolev Tu-95However, the Type Number system was found to be difficult to remember and easy to confuse over a poor radio connection. The Air Standards Coordinating Committee (ASCC)--composed of the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand--then stepped in and adopted a system similar to that used during World War II to identify Japanese aircraft. This new system, devised in 1954, assigned each Soviet vehicle a codename or reporting name according to its primary mission. The first letter of the reporting name indicates the type of vehicle.
A Air-to-air missile B Bomber C Cargo transport and civil aircraft F Fighter G Surface-to-air missile H Helicopter K Air-to-surface missile M Miscellaneous aircraft (including trainers, flying boats, EW platforms) S Surface-to-surface missileFixed-wing aircraft (bombers, cargo transports, and fighters) received names with one syllable if powered by propeller engines (both piston and turboprop) and two syllables if powered by turbojets or turbofans. Major variants of each design were further designated by the addition of a suffix letter appended to the type name, such as the seventh version of the Tu-16 'Badger' is the 'Badger-G'. The complete list of known ASCC reporting names for manned aircraft is provided below. Note this list includes foreign planes operated by the Soviets and has also been expanded to China.
Bombers Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename ================================================ Douglas A-20 Boston 'Box' Ilyushin Il-2 'Bark' Ilyushin Il-4 'Bob' Ilyushin Il-10 'Beast' Ilyushin Il-28 'Beagle' (originally 'Butcher') Ilyushin Il-40 'Brawny' Ilyushin Il-54 'Blowlamp' Myasishchev M-4/6, 3M 'Bison' Myasishchev M-50/52 'Bounder' North American B-25 Mitchell 'Bank' Petlyakov Pe-2 'Buck' Tupolev Tu-2/6 'Bat' Tupolev Tu-4/80 'Bull' Tupolev Tu-14/89 'Bosun' Tupolev Tu-20/95/142 'Bear' Tupolev Tu-16 'Badger' Tupolev Tu-22 'Blinder' (originally 'Beauty') Tupolev Tu-22M 'Backfire' Tupolev Tu-82 'Butcher' Tupolev Tu-85 'Barge' Tupolev Tu-91 'Boot' Tupolev Tu-98 'Backfin' Tupolev Tu-160 'Blackjack' Yakovlev Yak-28 'Brewer' (originally 'Brassard') Cargo Transports Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename ================================================ Antonov An-2/3 'Colt' Antonov An-8 'Camp' Antonov An-10 'Cat' Antonov An-12 'Cub' Antonov An-14 'Clod' Antonov An-22 'Cock' Antonov An-24 'Coke' Antonov An-26 'Curl' Antonov An-28 'Cash' (originally Clog) Antonov An-30 'Clank' Antonov An-32 'Cline' Antonov An-72/74 'Coaler' Antonov An-124 'Condor' Antonov An-225 'Cossack' Beriev Be-30/32 'Cuff' Harbin Y-11 'Chan' (China) Ilyushin Il-12 'Coach' Ilyushin Il-14 'Crate' Ilyushin Il-18 'Clam' Ilyushin Il-18/20/22 'Coot' Ilyushin Il-62 'Classic' Ilyushin Il-76 'Candid' Ilyushin Il-86 'Camber' Lisunov Li-2 'Cab' (license built Douglas DC-3) Shaanxi Y-8 'Chipmunk' (China) Tupolev Tu-70/75 'Cart' Tupolev Tu-104 'Camel' Tupolev Tu-110 'Cooker' Tupolev Tu-114 'Cleat' Tupolev Tu-124 'Cookpot' Tupolev Tu-134 'Crusty' Tupolev Tu-144 'Charger' Tupolev Tu-154 'Careless' Yakovlev Yak-6/8 'Crib' Yakovlev Yak-10 'Crow' Yakovlev Yak-12 (high-wing) 'Creek' Yakovlev Yak-12 (low-wing) 'Crow' Yakovlev Yak-16 'Cork' Yakovlev Yak-40 'Codling' Yakovlev Yak-42 'Clobber' Fighters Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename ================================================ Bell P-39 Airacobra 'Fred' Lavochkin La-7 'Fin' Lavochkin La-9 'Fritz' Lavochkin La-11 'Fang' Lavochkin La-15 'Fantail' Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-9 'Fargo' Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 'Fagot' (originally 'Falcon') Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 'Fresco' Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 'Farmer' Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 'Fishbed' Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23/27 'Flogger' Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23-01 'Faithless' Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 'Foxbat' Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29/30/33 'Fulcrum' Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-31 'Foxhound' Mikoyan-Gurevich Ye-2A 'Faceplate' Mikoyan-Gurevich Ye-152 'Flipper' Mikoyan-Gurevich 1-42/1-44 'Flatpack' Nanchang Q-5 'Fantan' (China) Shenyang J-8 'Finback' (China) Tupolev Tu-10 'Frosty' Tupolev Tu-128 'Fiddler' Sukhoi Su-7/17/20/22 'Fitter' Sukhoi Su-9/11 'Fishpot' Sukhoi Su-15 'Flagon' Sukhoi Su-24 'Fencer' Sukhoi Su-25/28 'Frogfoot' Sukhoi Su-27/30/33/35/37 'Flanker' Sukhoi Su-32/34 'Fullback' Sukhoi Su-47 'Firkin' Yakovlev Yak-9 'Frank' Yakovlev Yak-15/17 'Feather' Yakovlev Yak-23 'Flora' Yakovlev Yak-25/27 'Flashlight' Yakovlev Yak-28P 'Firebar' Yakovlev Yak-36 'Freehand' Yakovlev Yak-38 'Forger' Yakovlev Yak-41/141 'Freestyle' (originally 'Fulmar') Xi'an JH-7 / FB-7 'Flounder' (China) Helicopters Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename ================================================ Eurocopter AS365N Dauphin (Z-9) 'Haitun' (China) Kamov Ka-10 'Hat' Kamov Ka-15 'Hen' Kamov Ka-18 'Hog' Kamov Ka-20 'Harp' Kamov Ka-22 'Hoop' Kamov Ka-25 'Hormone' Kamov Ka-26/126/128/226 'Hoodlum' Kamov Ka-27/28/29/32 'Helix' Kamov Ka-50 'Hokum' Mil Mi-1 'Hare' Mil Mi-2 'Hoplite' Mil Mi-4 'Hound' Mil Mi-6/22 'Hook' Mil Mi-8/9/17/171 'Hip' Mil Mi-10 'Harke' Mil Mi-12 (V-12) 'Homer' Mil Mi-14 'Haze' Mil Mi-24/25/35 'Hind' Mil Mi-26 'Halo' Mil Mi-28 'Havoc' Mil Mi-34 'Hermit' Yakovlev Yak-24 'Horse' Miscellaneous Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename ================================================ Aero L-29 Delfin 'Maya' Amtorg GST 'Mop' (license built Consolidated PBY) Antonov An-71 'Madcap' Beriev Be-2 'Mote' Beriev Be-4 'Mug' Beriev Be-6 'Madge' Beriev Be-8 'Mole' Beriev Be-10 'Mallow' Beriev Be-12 'Mail' Beriev Be-40/42/44 (A-40) 'Mermaid' Beriev MDR-2 'Mote' Chetverikov Che-2 (MDR-6) 'Mug' Ilyushin Il-28U 'Mascot' Ilyushin Il-38 'May' Ilyushin Il-78 'Midas' Ilyushin Il-86VPK 'Maxdrome' Ilyushin/Beriev A-50 'Mainstay' Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15UTI 'Midget' Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21U 'Mongol' Myasishchev M-17/55 'Mystic' Polikarpov Po-2 'Mule' Sukhoi Su-7U 'Moujik' Sukhoi Su-9U 'Maiden' Sukhoi Su-11U 'Maiden' Tsybin Ts-25 'Mist' Tupolev Tu-126 'Moss' Xi'an KJ-2000 'Mainring' (China) Yakovlev UT-2 'Mink' Yakovlev Yak-7U 'Mark' Yakovlev Yak-11 'Moose' Yakovlev Yak-14 'Mare' Yakovlev Yak-17UTI 'Magnet' Yakovlev Yak-18 'Max' Yakovlev Yak-18M 'Mouse' Yakovlev Yak-25RV 'Mandrake' Yakovlev Yak-25R/27R 'Mangrove' Yakovlev Yak-28U 'Maestro' Yakovlev Yak-30 'Magnum' Yakovlev Yak-32 'Mantis'Other interesting names include the 'Ferret' assigned to a supposed MiG-37 and 'Fearless' assigned in error to a fighter that never existed.
A final noteworthy naming convention was that devised by the US Department of Defense (DOD) to assign preliminary names to newly discovered aircraft spotted at Soviet research and testing facilities. The system was adopted in the 1970s and used to identify protoype and experimental aircraft observed at the following sites. This system is now used for China as well. Each site is designated by a short abbreviation of its name followed by a sequential letter differentiating planes observed there. The letters "I" and "O" are skipped to avoid possible confusion with the numbers "1" and "0."
Casp - Caspian Sea Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename DOD Code =================================================================== Alexeiev KM none Casp-A Alexeiev A-90 Orlyonok none Casp-B Kaz - Kazan Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename DOD Code =================================================================== Tupolev Tu-22M0 'Backfire' Kaz-A Novo - Novosibirsk Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename DOD Code =================================================================== unknown Novo-A unknown Novo-B Sukhoi T-60S none Novo-C Ram - Ramenskoye (Moscow) Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename DOD Code =================================================================== unknown Ram-A* unknown Ram-B* unknown Ram-C* unknown Ram-D* unknown Ram-E* unknown Ram-F* Yakovlev Yak-38 'Forger' Ram-G Tupolev Tu-144D 'Charger' Ram-H Sukhoi T-8 (Su-25) 'Frogfoot' Ram-J Sukhoi T-10 (Su-27) 'Flanker' Ram-K Mikoyan Gurevich MiG-29 'Fulcrum' Ram-L Myasishchev M-17 Stratosfera 'Mystic' Ram-M Ilyushin Il-102 none Ram-N Tupolev Tu-160 'Blackjack' Ram-P skipped? Ram-Q Buran (structural test article) none Ram-R1 Buran (aerodynamic test vehicle) none Ram-R2 unknown Ram-S Yakovlev Yak-141 'Freestlye' Ram-T *Ram-A through Ram-F includes Sukhoi T6-1, T6-2IG, and T-4 Syb - Syberski or Saki Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename DOD Code =================================================================== Sukhoi S-37 (Su-47) 'Firkin' Syb-A Tag - Taganrog Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename DOD Code =================================================================== Beriev/Bartini VVA-14 Tag-A unknown Tag-B unknown Tag-C Beriev A-40 'Mermaid' Tag-D Harb - Harbin (China) Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename DOD Code =================================================================== Harbin SH-5 Harb-A Nan - Nanchang Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename DOD Code =================================================================== unknown cargo transport Nan-A unknown fighter Nan-B Xian - Xi'an Manufacturer & Model ASCC Codename DOD Code =================================================================== Shenyang J-8 'Finback' Xian-AA similar system was also developed for missile prototypes observed at Red Army test ranges and will be discussed in a future question.
Now that former Soviet design bureaus have become public companies and the cloak of secrecy surrounding the Russian
military has been lifted, most newer designs have become known by their true designations rather than codenames.
Many recent designs (including the Yak-130 and Tu-204) have not been given reporting names at all, leading some
to speculate that the system may have been abandoned. However, it has recently been learned that the
Su-47 has been allocated the name Firkin while the
MiG 1-44 is known as the Flatpack. These new reporting name designations
imply the ASCC system is still in use.
- answer by Jeff Scott, 17 March 2002
I want to know what parameters indicate the generation of an aircraft, both military and civilian. For example, the F-14 is considered a fourth generation fighter. Can you sort aircraft by their generations?
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